Power Electronics and Motor Drives: Advances and Trends

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Bell Laboratories of USA published the historical paper on p-n-p-n triggering transistor in [4], and then, GE commercially introduced the thyristor in Since then, there has been a vast expansion of the technology with the research and development radiating in different directions as shown in the? As a result of the research, many new devices emerged with higher power ratings and improved characteristics. Some signi? Many new simulation software and computer-aideddesign techniques helped in these studies. Advanced control and signal estimation techniques, particularly for ac motor drives, emerged.


These include vector or? Advanced DSPs and application speci?

The advent of powerful personal computers also played an important role in the evolution. Among many inventions and milestones, only some signi? A solid-state power electronic apparatus can be looked upon as a high-ef? Besides, the equipment is static, free from audio noise, and has low cost, small size, high reliability, and long life compared to traditional equipment used before for similar functions.

In a modern automated industrial environment, power electronicsbased motion control and computers work very closely giving high industrial productivity with improved product quality. In a broad perspective, power electronics helps industrial competitiveness of a nation that provides improved quality of life. It is no wonder that power electronics is now spreading fast from the industrially advanced nations to the developing countries of the world.

There is another important role of power electronics. It is now playing an increasingly important role in energy conservation and environmental pollution control trends of the 21st century [1], as mentioned before. Globally, electrical energy consumption is increasing dramatically in order to improve our living standard. This is particularly true for USA, where the energy appetite is voracious.

Dr. Bimal k. Bose

Burning of fossil fuels causes environmental pollution that includes generation of greenhouse gases for global warming, whereas nuclear plants have safety and waste disposal problems. Power electronics helps energy conservation essentially by improved ef? Majority of the pumps and fans is used in industrial environment for control of? Again, in a variablefrequency drive, converter—machine ef? The additional cost of power electronics can be recovered by saving energy in a period depending on the cost of electricity. For example, the cost of electricity is high in Japan.

For this reason, majority of the Japanese homes uses variable-speed air-conditioning to save energy. One popular application of power electronics in recent years is variable-frequency drive for diesel-electric ship propulsion, which can save large amount of fuel, compared to the traditional diesel-turbine propulsion. Power electronics-based high-frequency compact? Light dimming control of CFL can further improve energy ef? The CFLs are expected to completely replace the incandescent lamps in near future.

Solid-state LED lamps with higher ef? High-frequency induction cooking and microwave ovens also save energy compared to traditional surface-mounted ovens. Saving energy not only provides the direct economic bene? Indirectly, it helps mitigation of our environmental pollution, such as global warming problems. As the cost of energy increases further in future, energy conservation with the help of power electronics will be considered extremely important.

In fact, these methods of energy conservation can be made mandatory in formulating the energy policy of nations. Currently, there is a growing trend for utilization of our vast wind and PV resources, which are renewable, environmentally clean, and safe. The use of both of these resources is heavily dependent on power electronics.

Recent technology advances in variablespeed wind turbines, power electronics, and machine drives have made wind energy very competitive—almost equal to that of fossil fuel power. However, PV is currently more expensive [12] typically? Unfortunately, the availability of wind and PV power is sporadic in nature, and therefore, they require back-up power from the grid.

Bulk storage of electricity from wind and PV resources that is also heavily dependent on power electronics is not yet economical. Wind and PV resources are particularly important for people of emerging nations, who are not tied to electric grid. It is estimated that around one-third of the world population approximately 2 billion is isolated from the grids.

H2 can be easily stored as compressed gas, or in cryogenically cooled lique? Of course, H2 can also be produced at zero emission by using PV, nuclear power, or coal gasi?

One major area for use of H2 gas is FC [14]—[17] that uses power electronics extensively for conversion of power. FCs, as power sources, have the advantages that they are static, environmentally clean, and operate at high ef? FCs can be used in EVs, building cogeneration, portable power sources, UPS systems, and distributed power generation for utility system. Although FCs are very expensive in the present state of the technology, they show signi?

Major auto companies are investing heavily for future FC cars. Both EVs and HEVs save oil-based energy consumption and solve or mitigate the urban pollution problem. With the current trend of increasing gasoline price, the demand for HEVs is increasing, and we are on the verge of introducing commercial plug-in HEVs. However, the customer acceptance of EVs and HEVs in future will be mainly dictated by the cost of battery. Again, power semiconductor evolution has closely followed the evolution of microelectronics.

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The researchers in microelectronics have worked relentlessly to improve semiconductor processing, device fabrication and packaging, and these efforts have contributed to the successful evolution of so many advanced power devices available today. Thyristors or SCRs and triacs are essentially the forerunners of modern power devices, and they dominated the?

These devices operate mainly on utility system and contribute to power quality and lagging displacement power factor DPF problems. Today, thyristors are indispensable for handling high power at low frequency for applications, such as HVDC converters, phase-controlled SVCs, cycloconverters, and loadcommuted inverter LCI drives. The dominance of thyristors in large power handling will not be challenged, at least in the near future.

However, because of the inherent demerits, phase control devices will be eventually replaced by self-controlled devices operating in PWM or stepped-wave mode. The advent of high-power gate turn-off thyristors GTOs , mainly by Japanese companies [22], pushed the force-commutated thyristor converters into obsolescence. The device largest 6 kV, 6 kA continued to be very popular in multimegawatt voltage-fed with forward-blocking device and current-fed with reverseblocking device converter applications.

Slow switching of the device requires large snubber that causes large switching loss, and therefore, restricts its application at low switching frequency a few hundred hertz. Power MOSFET, unlike most other devices, is a majority carrier device, and therefore, its conduction drop is high at high voltage rating, but the switching loss is low because of fast switching.

Unfortunately, large bipolar junction transistors BJTs , once so popular device in s, have now become obsolete. The invention of IGBT has been an important milestone in the history of power semiconductor devices [24]. Its power rating is increasing continuously currently 6. IGBT IPMs are available with built-in gate driver, control, and protection for up to several hundred horsepower ac motor drives.

Highpower 6. However, at higher voltage rating, IGBTs have larger conduction drop that tends to offset the advantages of insulated gate drive and self-protection. The static induction transistor is a junction FET JFET -like normally on-device with large conduction drop and is essentially a solid state equivalent of vacuum triode. It can be is used in high-power high-frequency converter applications.

There are a number of other devices, such as MOS-controlled thyristor, static induction thyristor, injection enhanced gate transistor, MOS turn-off thyristor, etc. In addition, there are also a number of devices under evolution [24], [26]. Although silicon has been the basic raw material for the current devices, large bandgap materials, such as SiC 3.

These new materials have high-breakdown electric? These properties permit devices with higher voltage and power capability, higher switching frequency, lower conduction drop, higher junction temperature, and better radiation hardness. C and ?

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C, respectively. The results are higher integration of converter with improved ef? However, processing of these materials is very dif? Currently, the status of SiC devices in order of decreasing maturity can be given as follows [29]: 1 Schottky barrier diodes: — V, 2—10 A—in market; 2 JBS diodes lower leakage : 0. At higher voltage rating, SiC bipolar devices will be used. SiC-based control ICs have also been demonstrated in laboratory. It appears that power electronics based on large bandgap devices will bring renaissance in power electronics in future, particularly in highpower area [24].

Converter evolution essentially followed the device evolution. Of course, the most common type of converter, operating on utility system, is the Graetz bridge with diodes or thyristors , which was known long time ago. Diode or thyristor-based converters distort the ac line current and create utility system power quality problems. Since diode- and thyristor-type converters are very common, and constantly growing on utility system, various types of harmonic?

In addition, the line voltage sag problem can easily be compensated. Considering the present trend, it appears that eventually phasecontrolled converters and cycloconverters will be obsolete for operation on the utility system. Between the voltage-fed and current-fed converters, the former is superior in overall?

Therefore, this class of converters has been accepted almost universally for general power processing applications. Voltagefed converters can be two- or multilevel type depending on the level of handling power. Multilevel converters can be classi? The diode-clamped type is most commonly used.

Of course, the H-bridge type has the advantages of modular construction and absence of dc capacitor voltage unbalance problem, but transformer coupling is often essential.


Power Electronics and Motor Drives: Advances and Trends - Bimal K. Bose - Google Books

Multilevel converters with higher number of levels are important for handling higher power at high voltage. Flexible ac transmission system FACTS [37], [38] is basically a power electronic method of regulating the bus voltage and controlling the? Since the transient response of STATCOMs to supply and absorb energy pulses is very fast, the units can also control transient stability and generator oscillation problems of the utility system.

FACTS applications will continue to grow in future with higher converter levels and higher power rating, as we gain more experience in this area [39], [40]. Traditionally, converters with self-controlled devices use simple hard-switching principle. However, hard switching has the inherent disadvantages of high switching loss that decreases the converter ef? To overcome these problems, softswitched converters have been proposed.

The literature on soft-switched converters is very large [44], [45]. However, softswitched converters generally require resonance circuits and extra devices with additional control complexity that can increase the converter cost, decrease reliability, and extra losses that can adversely affect the converter ef? For these reasons, soft-switched converters generally could not get acceptance for motor drives. Some of the problems of hard-switched converters have been solved by installing bulky low-pass LC?

Soft-switched power conversion, however, is justi? One popular application area of soft-switched converters is resonant-link dc—dc converters. Future emphasis on converters will be mainly on power electronic building block integration, automated design, simulation, manufacturing, and test, which are somewhat similar to the trends of very large scale integration VLSI. Although, traditionally, ac machines have been used for constant-speed applications, and dc machines for variablespeed drives, the advent of solid-state variable-frequency inverters since s, and later progression of power semicon- ductor devices, various converter topologies, advanced PWM techniques, and improved control and estimation methods gradually brought high-performance ac drives of various types in the market place, pushing the dc drives toward obsolescence [43].

Both induction and synchronous machines have been extensively used. The cage-type induction motors with voltagefed converter in wide power range are universally popular in industrial applications [5], [18]. For constant-speed applications of induction motor, the variable-frequency starter has the advantages of full torque starting, sinusoidal line current, and reduced?

As the converter cost decreases, eventually, variable-frequency starter will be extensively used. Wound-rotor induction motor drives with slip power recovery static Kramer and Scherbius drives have been used in limited speed range for large pumps, compressors, variable-speed hydro,? Although the machine cost is somewhat higher along with the disadvantages of slip rings and brushes, the converter cost is somewhat economical.

This type of drive is expected to be obsolete in future, except for very specialized applications. In very high-power range, LCI wound-? It is interesting to note that recently, voltage-fed multilevel converters are? Permanent magnet synchronous machines PMSM , particularly brushless dc drives with trapezoidal machines, are more popular in the lower end of power.

Generally, PMSM drives are more expensive than cage-type motors, but have the advantages of higher ef?

Power electronics and motor drives : advances and trends /

Particularly, axial-? It is interesting to note that switched reluctance motor SRM drives are recently getting wide attention in the literature [5]. The SRM is simple in construction, economical and robust, and is often compared with induction machine, although it is the closest relative of synchronous reluctance machine. However, SRM drive has inherent pulsating torque and acoustic noise problems, and needs absolute position encoder like a self-controlled PMSM drive. The advent of vector or? It has been widely accepted for applications in paper and textile mills, metal rolling mills, machine tools, servos, robotics, transportation drives, etc.

In spite of complexity, vector control is expected to be universal in future for drives, replacing all types of scalar control. The dynamical d—q model of machine and parameter variation effect are extremely important in vector control. In self-commissioning of modern drives, the initial tuning for vector control can be done by estimation of machine parameters with inverterinjected signals.

However, online precision parameter tuning always remains a challenge. A type of performance-enhanced scalar control, called DTC control [52]—[54], was proposed in the s. The control gives fast response, and is somewhat simple to implement due to absence of close loop current control, traditional PWM algorithm, and vector transformation.

However, the inherent demerits of limit cycle operation, such as pulsating torque, pulsating? Recently, fuzzy and neurofuzzy control techniques have been proposed for DTC drives [54] to improve performance, but at the cost of higher complexity. In a drive, where the machine parameter variation and load torque disturbance can be problems, various adaptive control techniques, such as self-tuning regulator, H-in?

Recently, powerful intelligent control techniques, based on AI, have emerged. Intelligent control is often de? It is a good candidate, where mathematical model may not exist, or the model is ill de? Power electronics is an area of extremely important and rapidly changing technology. Technological advancements in the area contribute to performance improvement and cost reduction, with applications proliferating in industrial, commercial, residential, military and aerospace environments. This book is meant to help engineers operating in all these areas to stay up-to-date on the most recent advances in the field, as well as to be a vehicle for clarifying increasingly complex theories and mathematics.

This book will be a cost-effective and convenient way for engineers to get up-to-speed on the latest trends in power electronics. The reader will obtain the same level of informative instruction as they would if attending an IEEE course or a training session, but without ever leaving the office or living room! The author is in an excellent position to offer this instruction as he teaches many such courses. Self-learning advanced tutorial, falling between a traditional textbook and a professional reference. Almost every page features either a detailed figure or a bulleted chart, accompanied by clear descriptive explanatory text.

Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor Devices. Chapter 3 PhaseControlled Converters and Cycloconverters. Chapter 5 CurrentFed Converters.