From e-learning to m-learning Mobile learning: The next generation of learning The m-learning project. The From e-learning to m-learning project addressed the development of courseware for mobile phones, smartphones and PDAs. What was important about this project was that the main pedagogical problems of developing mobile learning for PDAs were solved in the project From e-learning to m-learning, in which a comfortable didactic environment was created by using Microsoft Reader Works, providing each student with Microsoft Reader software to display the content and which was adjudged highly satisfactory by surveys of students who had studied a full course by mobile learning on a PDA.
As the major objection raised against mobile learning is screen size, it was important that this problem was solved and bypassed at the outset.
The project also had success in developing courseware for phones and incorporated surveys of student satisfaction with mobile learning for students from Ireland, Norway, Germany and Italy. The main activities to achieve the products of acceptable courseware for smartphones in the Mobile learning: the next generation of learning project are installing a web-authoring tool like Macromedia Dreamweaver MX Version 1. Opera 6. The next generation of mobile learning course development in based on Flash Lite.
This development is motivated by the fact that there are thousands of developers who have used Flash to develop elearning content and that there is a lot of elearning content available in Flash, so that for the first time in the history of mlearning you can reuse the pedagogical and technical skills of the developers and the content can be reused too. Progress was also made in the development of courseware for PDAs with one of the partners, NKI from Bekkestua, Norway announcing that by developing server-side code for their system, they had produced mobile learning versions of all of their e-learning courses and were offering them to their mainline students.
It recognised that there were in the United Kingdom many 16 to 20 year old youths who were unemployed and had urgent needs for additional training, but who refused to attend a training centre or college. They were unemployable and refused to attend training. They all had, however, a mobile phone which they used constantly. The project, therefore, set out to develop courses for them on their mobile phones in the fields of literacy, numeracy and social skills. The focus of the project was on mobile phones, as this type of student did not possess either smartphones or PDAs.
This was a very large project led from Italy and counting a wide range of at least 20 European universities among its members with funding of 8. The objectives of this project are: The definition of theoretically8.
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This project ended in early and the mobile learning world is waiting for the release of results from it. When one is discussing the question of the incorporation of mobile learning into mainstream education and training it is important to realise that these projects were projects. That is, they were research undertakings to set out the first building blocks of a new sector of education and training provision. It is now time for mobile learning to emerge from its project status and enter into mainstream education and training.
Excellent work has been done by the projects listed above but until mobile learning enters the mainstream it remains a fragile and research-based undertaking. The trouble with projects is that they tend to collapse and disappear when the project funding is discontinued.
Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers - Google книги
Why has mobile learning not yet emerged from its project status and not yet taken its place in mainstream provision? Why does it remain at the research project level and not emerge into a serious form of provision? The problem is that wireless applications are being developed for wireless devices for all walks of life. Learning and training do not figure in these developments.
Learning and training do not seem to be high on the list of applications that are receiving attention today. It is essential for mobile learning that developments in education keep pace with developments in other fields. It is important that mobile learning should not be left behind. As relayed by innovation experts, new ideas and inventions only become innovations when the ideas and inventions are adopted and utilised by the market.
Isnt it strange that all students enrolled in higher and further education institutions today have frequent needs for information from their institutions about timetable changes, assessment deadlines, feedback from tutors and other urgent administrative details? Nearly all of these students carry a sophisticated communications device which they use constantly in all walks of life except in their education or training programme. Isnt it strange that all higher and further education institutions today have frequent needs for providing information to their students about timetable changes, assessment deadlines, feedback from tutors and other urgent administrative details?
The answer to these questions that I have been posing about why mobile learning has not moved from project status into the mainstream is well known. It is that mobile learning is not seen as a satisfactory revenue stream for the telecommunications operators. The urgent need for mobile learning is to emerge from its fragile project status and convince the telecommunications operators that it represents a viable and valuable revenue stream.
We have posed the problem of the status and acceptance of mobile learning we must now look for solutions to the problem. One can develop a nine-point matrix for the use of mobile learning in mainstream education and training. One axis is made up of the three types of devices that make up mobile learning provision:. The other axis is the types of education provision that can reasonably be provided by mobile learning:. Mobile learning academic administration SMSs. This provides universities and other institutions with structures to send SMSs to all their students, or all students in a particular grouping about timetable changes, examination deadlines, assignment results, changes of procedure that all institutions need to immediately communicate to their students.
This can also be used for students who need information from the institution in the form of FAQs, or answers contained in databanks. Mobile learning academic summaries. These are 4 to 5 screen academic summaries of content, examination hints, assessment questions for course revision, guidelines for particularly difficult parts of a course or counselling provision for students in need. Full modules by mobile learning. This is the presentation of full courses, or full modules of courses, on mobile devices. This gives the following nine possibilities: Mobile learning for academic administration on PDAs Mobile learning for academic administration on smartphones Mobile learning for academic administration on mobile phones Mobile learning academic summaries for PDAs Mobile learning academic summaries for smartphones Mobile learning academic summaries for mobile phones Full modules by mobile learning for PDAs Full modules by mobile learning for smartphones Full modules by mobile learning for mobile phones.
As I have indicated in my analysis of the European Union-funded projects, many of these have already been achieved; a few remain to be achieved. We need criteria for the inclusion of mobile learning courses in the mainstrem. When can they be said to have achieved mainstream status? And when must it be said that more work remains to be done? The following criteria were established by analysing the parallels with the fields of distance learning and of e-learning. There are four criteria for the inclusion of mobile learning in mainstream education and training.
These are: Enrolment of mobile learning students in courses on the institutions official prospectus. This is essential for incorporating mobile learning into the mainstream. If the mobile learning course is not included in the institutions prospectus and listed as available for student enrolment it remains peripheral with the status of a research project in an isolated university department and cannot be considered as part of mainstream provision.
Enrolment of mobile learning students into fee-paying courses. This is applicable to countries in which fees are payable for enrolment in further and higher education courses. If the mobile learning course is not included in the institutions fee-paying courses and is listed as available for paid student enrolment it remains peripheral with the status of a research project and cannot be considered as part of mainstream provision. Enrolment of mobile learning students into assessed courses. If the mobile learning course is not assessed with the same rigour and procedures as other courses offered by the institution it remains peripheral with the status of a research project and cannot be considered as part of mainstream provision.
Enrolment of mobile learning students into accredited courses. As happened in the field of distance education and then in e-learning, the achievement of accreditation for mobile learning is an indication that the sector has entered into the mainstream. The awarding of assessment at university level in distance education was a lengthy process lasting nearly years and was not fully accepted until the foundation of the Open Universities in the s; in elearning it was achieved much more quickly.
Towards a solution: institutions already operating in the mainstream. The goal for any presentation on Incorporating mobile learning into the mainstream is to be able to state that mobile learning has arrived and is now operating in the mainstream. This is far from being the case with mobile learning. Like the fields of distance education and e-learning before it, mobile learning needs to achieve acceptance and then status and then certification, eventually at university degree level. Mobile learning is just setting out along that path. There are, however, some institutions which have already travelled extensively along the path, and it may be claimed that they are already operating in the mainstream.
In this presentation I want to refer to four examples:. The University of Pretoria The importance of the work being done at the University of Pretoria is that it deals with mainline students who are studying mainline university courses. This is still the case. Mobile phone support to these rural distance learning students entails sending bulk, pre-planned SMSs to:. In more recent times it has become probably the largest European provider of e-learning courses for paid enrolment and has today a portfolio of over e-learning courses.
It is a partner with Ericsson in the Mobile learning: the next generation of learning project. During the course of this project is announced that it had developed mobile learning versions of all of its e-learning courses and was offering them for paid enrolment. This represents a massive transfer of mobile learning into the mainstream.
Ericsson Education Ireland I am happy to be able to announce that Ericsson Education Ireland in Dublin has again been successful in winning a grant for mobile learning from the European Commission. Again the grant is small Development of a Mobile Learning Development Kit for the use of mainstream institutions to enable them to introduce mobile learning.
A Handbook for Educators and Trainers, 1st Edition
A hands-on, how-to-do-it guide. A Mobile Learning Academic Administration kit. A hands-on, how-todo-it guide for mainstream institutions on how to contact all, or groups, of students by mobile learning on the model of the University of Pretoria. Teaching and evaluation of 20 course guides and 10 full modules with mainstream students. You can see here a transition from a concentration on institution-specific development within a single institution to a focus on the provision of materials for the field as a whole, with the purpose of moving mobile learning into mainstream education and training.
The development of the literature of mobile learning has high importance in the move of mobile earning into the mainstream.
Mobile learning will never emerge from its present fragile project-based status and take its place in mainstream education and training unless it has a vibrant literature. Deans of Faculties at universities throughout the world will never accept the introduction of mobile learning into their courseware unless they can verify the claims of mobile learning by consulting the research literature. In some ways the status of mobile learning today is similar to the status of distance education at the start of the s.
Distance education, it is true, was characterised by extensive offerings from institutions around the world and the foundation of the Open Universities in the United Kingdom, in Spain and in Germany were beginning to give it new status, but its literature was unacceptably weak. For this reason Distance education: international perspectives was published by me in to provide a collection of contributions to the literature of distance education from the s, my Foundations of distance education was first published in to give an overview of the field, Theoretical principles of distance education followed in to give a theoretical analysis of the field and Distance education: new perspectives was also published in to give a collection of the contributions to the literature during the s.
The international journal Distance Education was founded in and is now in its 25th year. Similar initiatives are necessary for the literature of mobile learning if it is to convince academics in universities worldwide that it is a viable form of educational provision. In this context it is excellent to be able to welcome the first book on mobile learning to be published by a major international publisher which will appear in mid-November from Routledge in London and New York.gherabalbeto.cf
Mobile learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers (Open & Flexible Learning)
This timely introduction to the emerging field of mobile learning explains the technologies involved, their applications and the multiple effects on pedagogical and social practice. Mobile devices include handheld computers, smartphones and PDAs, and this handbook will emphasize the issues of usability, accessibility, evaluation and effectiveness, drawing from case studies written by researchers and practitioners, all experts in the field. This is a cutting-edge subject in open and flexible learning, with e-learning a key issue in the UK Governments strategy to increase the number of people going in to higher education.
It is described thus: This timely introduction to the emerging field of mobile learning uses case studies written by experts in the field to explain the technologies involved, their applications and the multiple effects on pedagogical and social practice. Moobile devices include handheld computers, smartphones and PDAs, and this handbook will emphasise the issues of usability, accessibility, evaluation and effectiveness, drawing from case studies written by researchers and practitioners, all experts in the field.
Finally, the problem of the incorporation of mobile learning into mainstream education and training has been addressed in this presentation. The answer to the question Why has mobile learning not moved from project status to the mainstream? It is that mobile learning is not seen as a satisfactory revenue stream by the telecommunications operators. Solutions have been proposed for this problem. Firstly, there are thousands pf universities and further and higher education colleges all over the world. If they can all be convinced to accept mobile learning as their normal means of communication with all their students on changes of timetable, submission deadlines, enrolment procedures and other administrative necessities, a massive mobile learning revenue stream will already be set up.
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Secondly, the production of a mobile learning development kit for distribution to universities and colleges to enable them to introduce mobile learning will set up another revenue stream. Thirdly, the production of course guides, course summaries, examination reminders, helps with difficult parts of a course, will set up another revenue stream.
Fourthly, the production of full course modules for PDAs, handhelds, palmtops, and also for smartphones and eventually for mobile phones, will set up another revenue stream. Finally, the literature of the field needs to be developed, books on mobile learning need to be written, conferences like this one need to be organised. The challenge to all of you attending this conference is to go away from here convinced of the need to establish mobile learning as a viable and valuable revenue stream for the telecommunications industry.
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The basis of mobile learning A definition of mobile learning A subset of distance education Mobile learning projects The failure of mobile learning Towards a solution a matrix for mainstream provision Towards a solution criteria for incorporation in the mainstream Towards a solution operating in the mainstream University of Pretoria NKI, Norway Athabasca University, Canada Ericsson Education Ireland Towards a solution the literature Conclusions 1.
From my own personal point of view, when I came into mobile learning for the first time in , there were three bases for mobile learning: 1. The future is wireless Irritation with the published scenarios formobile devices of Ericsson and Nokia A law of distance education research. The future is wireless In , when I started working in this field, it was already clear that the future was wireless. Irritation with the published wireless scenarios of Ericsson and Nokia Irritation is not a good basis for the foundation of a new sector of education and training provision.
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Mobile learning: a handbook for educators and trainers
Established seller since Seller Inventory LQ Condition: NEW. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal. Shipped from UK. New edition. Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Book Description Routledge. Seller Inventory NEW Publisher: Routledge , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Emphasising the issues of usability, accessibility, evaluation and effectiveness and illustrated by case studies drawn from contemporary projects from around the world, this book considers: the fundamentals of mobile technologies and devices the educational foundations of modern networked learning the issues that underpin mobile learning and make it accessible for all users the challenges of making mobile learning a substantial and sustainable component in colleges, universities and corporations implications and issues for the future.
Review : ' This book can be recommended to educators and trainers developing or using mobile learning.
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