Death to the Landlords (Felse, Book 11)

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I could go on and on about the things which are off since of late, but there is one thing nobody ever talks about: All those people who remember things different than how they are in this moment, this world, have they had a near death experience? This to me is the most important question! What if in this world we survived, but in another we died? Since I had my near death experience, things are not the same anymore.

Near death btw in a way, where by law I should have died. How about others? I did have a near-death experience right around the same time I started feeling like I was in the wrong place somehow. I was pushed down a flight of concrete stairs, and I remember thinking I would die. And I landed flat on my back on concrete, with my legs jammed up against a fence. But somehow I got right up. And now the world is different in some minor details. This is amazing to think about! I just last month had a discussion with a friend. I swore Billy Graham died and I watched his funeral on TV and so many people in tears and the sadness of such a great man being laid to rest and being honored by the Presidents and I even remember Bill Clinton speaking words in his honor…my friend said I was crazy.

I asked my mother and she remembers us talking about his passing. This is all fascinating! I distinctly remember Ernest Borgnine dying and was just jolted to read in these comments that he is alive — I went to Wikipedia immediately to confirm. I also thought Billy Graham was gone, for sure, seeming to recall something with his son speaking, etc. I also have had other memories that are distinctly different from family members in my personal life and I am known for an above average memory that I have suspected are due to reality shifts.

Thanks for bringing this all out! I have always thought it was an island also. THAT would be a strange experience to be sure! So glad to have found you. I have this vivid memory about a boy from whom I used to borrow music sheets for my piano classes, and his mother. They were my neighbours. He had no siblings and were older than me. So, one of these days, I crossed paths with his mother again, and thinking of that, I asked her about her son and if he was already in college.

This site is freaking me out. My friend Mikey and I used to talk about the Mandela memory all the time because we remembered him dying in prison. Donna Summer. When she passed recently, I had a triple take to the tv—I have a very distinct memory of her dying in —I was so upset because I used to love her voice—I remember it on the radio.

I did once call George Noory on Coast to Coast to talk about it. Weird, huh? Anyway, I will certainly keep an eye in this website, thanks for making me feel a tiny bit less crazy about these things! Well this is strange. From that point, I always associated that band with the friend who got me to listen to them in the first place. In fact, it was one of the things that got us talking to each other more in the first place. He introduced me to the band, then we started sharing more music.

I mean, I still have the album he sent me, but he had no recollection of sending it. He insists to this day that he had nothing to do with me liking Pendulum. It was the episode where the kids of the cul-de-sac discover that a quarter was stuck to the ground, and attempted every which way to remove it. I waited eagerly each following day waiting for the network to rerun that episode for some more of the good old laughs. Needless to say, I gave up on ever watching that episode again. It was only after 6 months, I saw the channel began to plug new episodes that were going to be aired in the coming weeks.

That very episode aired on the block reserved for the new episode. Never really thought anything of it.

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I remember that episode clearly! I had similar with an episode opening of the Simpsons: They beamed in. I had this movie on vhs in the 80s, and watched it dozens of times. A couple of months ago i wastched it on sattelite tv, and it was completely different. The same actors, the same setting, the same general idea, but the almost every scene seemed to be from a seperate movie. I went so far as to check imdb and wiki, thinking there must be a sequal or something, and i had been confused as to which one i had on vhs. No sequal. Personal story — i grew up on a huge farm with hundreds and hundreds of hereford red cattle.

We all had running jokes about them, and always kept track of their calves, their calves calves and so on. One day we were all sitting around talking about the new calves and i mentioned the hippos and how they always calved regularly. Everyone, mum, dad, my brother, our workmen, all stopped and looked at me. We ended up arguing for half an hour. No-one had ever seen or heard of them. They were gone.

I remember Mandela having died in prison. It was all over the tv, they showed footage of him alive and some funeral footage too. Again, this is a memory of a news event talking about it after the original event had occurred. I also remember being taught that there was 52 states with Alaska being number 51 even though at this point I only remember there being 50, and that was over ten years ago. I had to do some research into this. I remember it. I remember watching it in school. I remember his friends dragging his lifeless body away.

Here is a link to a video that was supposed to show him getting run over, but the video is gone. But it gets even better. People remember the bloodshed right? Read the comments. Reality gets freaking weirder every day. To the people who remember being taught about 52 States, do you remember the names of the other two? You might come back to it one day and notice events mentioned on it have completely shifted. I seem to have a fuzzy memory of 52 states as well. And i remembered it was 52, because it was the same as the number of cards in a deck.

I remember arguing with our teacher over the number because I had been taught that there was fifty until that point. I thought it was this way. I have never had a NDE that I know of. I can say that I live in the US and for some reason I could swear that 52 states has a familiarity.

I know I have a couple times had to really think before I said 52 or 52 because I knew it was off somehow. Or I would reword my phrase to not mention a number because I just was not sure anymore. I think??? Was that in this timeline? Love this thread. Very interesting!!!! A shift of some sort and that was when all these false memories started making their way to the surface. The jolt from what happened has left me in the state you are in. I just am unsure if it was a reality shift, or I got my butt kicked from one reality to another. When I first read this article, I thought you meant that some people remember Billy Graham as being still alive.

After I understood, I was shocked and had to double and triple check before fully believing it. I can clearly remember the death of Billy Graham and watching an interview of his widow talking about events from his life, his evangelism, how the two met, ect, with my grandma and talking about what a shame it was that such a good man died. I asked her if she remembered any of it, and was shocked when she told me that the only thing she could remember was his wife dying a few years ago. I thought she must be mistaken until I googled it.

In my timeline I can remember channel surfing and her being on television with her son no longer than a year ago. I also remember New Zealand being located to the northwest odd, because most everyone who remembers an alternate position seems to recall it being to the northeast of Australia and Australia being located further south and smaller. Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Guatemala were islands in relatively the same location; smaller and differently shaped but similar. As for personal experiences, I, my mother, and some of my immediate family remember my birthday as being the 27th of July.

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Also, I remember my mother always saying 52 states instead of 50 when I was growing up and getting annoyed because she was a teacher and thats such common knowledge. Someone mentioned that perhaps theres a connection between sliding and near death experiences. I was recently in the intensive care ward unconscious for a week and nearly died. I had a near death experience back in after a motorcycle accident. I remember billy graham dying,nz being northwest of oz,but only 50 states,i do remember that terminator 2 scene and the starwars one too…nelson mandela did die in prison in the 80s,jack palance,david soul,ernest borgnine all died along time ago too.

Alabama, 2. Alaska, 3. Arizona, 4. Arkansas 5. Colorado 6. California, 7. Connecticut, 8. Delaware, 9. Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Mississippi, Maine, Missouri, Michigan Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina New Hampshire, Nevada, Nebraska, North Dakota New Mexico, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico. Rhode Island South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Washington, Wyoming, Washington DC.

Many people remember Puerto Rico finally achieving statehood, and — around the same time — D. So, that makes this doubly strange. It sounds like someone in the news chain had a Mandela moment, and maybe more of them did. I am a US History teacher… so if I am wrong right now. My world is definitely screwy!!!!!!!!!! My friend, who I often talked about this kind of thing with years ago, pointed out to mo tonight that Nelson Mandela and Billy Graham were born in the same year.

Just some interesting serendipity. I also thought Mandela died in prison, and a couple of my friends share this memory. I also remember the Higgs boson being found back in , when it just only recently was found. Plus, I remember the Star Trek movie coming out in instead. And apparently WW2 ended in instead of If anyone has any of these same memories, please reply. I think Arnold Swharzanegger was playing the villain…. How do you explain a dream where you see that some of the lug nuts on one of tires on your car are missing.

You wake up and out of curiosity just go to the car to check … guess what … rear tire has 2 missing lug nuts! How about this dream where you see one your co-workers falling ill. Next day at work you casually ask the co-worker if everything is fine and come to find out that he has been recently diagnosed with cancer! The lugnut thing could have been you seeing it out of the corner of your eye but not realizing it and then bringing it back up during dreaming. After watching a bunch of Derren Brown episodes I can completely see that happening. BTW he is awesome! As for the phone call thing I used to do that.

I could think about someone and they would call me out of the blue. I had not talk to them in years and they call right at that moment?! Maybe I am not in tune with the universe as I once was. In I strongly remember John Kerry winning the election, when I went to school the next day I found out he lost, but I strongly remember him making a huge speech about it.

I recall the asasination of N. Mandela around I was a child at the time and attended a majority black school. I recall the next morning we all wore black ribbons and had an assembly. I recall the tv news showing crowds of people as there was a parade in Mandelas honor and while riding in the back of the car he was shot and killed. He had Kat been released from prison and apartide was ending. Now he lives and my memories are wrong it would seem or are they. Did I experience another reality? I can remember comments about him going to the big class room in the sky and permanently going to detention.

Andy Rooney and some other people dying much earlier than is official. Even accounting for normal things like buildings being torn down and new businesses springing up, there are oddities, like East — West streets being North — South and bends in the road being straight. But the worse part, as I was looking up the island status of Honduras and Costa Rica which I remembered as islands, especially Costa Rica , was Jamaica.

I, too, remember news report stating that Nelson Mandela died — and that was in the s! I distinctly remember the television channel 5 news broadcast in Boston where the TV news broadcaster, Natalie Jacobson, stated that he died. It was the main story during the p. Because how can you remember something that is completely inconsistent with the facts that are presented at a later time? I was relieved when I heard that other people also remember a news report from many years earlier stating that he had died in prison.

But this phenomenon just fascinates me. My conclusion is that there must be parallel universes. I distinctly remember America having 52 states, for one main reason. I think it was the principal who was doing some sort of pop quiz and one of the questions was how many states America had, he wrote 52 before Bart told him that there were now 51 due to the Dakota merge. This may seem insignificant but when I was in elementary school I clearly remember two of my friends getting mad at each other and then proceeding to attack each other with plastic lightsabers until getting in trouble, but neither of them recall the incident, even though I remember it clearly.

Do you think that it is related to having experienced an event in an alternate reality and then reliving it in this reality? In the movie The Matrix, they referenced deja vu, saying that it meant there was a glitch in the Matrix. And I can usually determine when it stops feeling familiar. Now, if you could just do that with lottery numbers, right…? Before the Mandela Effect became such an important part of my research, one of my main focuses was ghost research. And, perhaps apparitions are people dreaming their way into our time stream, witnessing things, and then returning to their own realities in time to wake up.

It might also explain doppelgangers such as when Shelley saw himself, and others saw him, too. I recall the details clearly. I can also clearly recall watching his widow making what seemed to me a rather strained show of grief, and I can recall having a conversation with my family about it. It was a week of interrupted programming on the TV, the Time magazine cover, Newsweek, and so on.

Lots of memories in lots of different contexts, over many days. When I later learned that Nelson Mandela was alive, I could not figure out what was going on. I literally stopped in my tracks. Leading with a link to that Cracked article — itself loaded with generalities and at least one false implication — actually struck me funny. Am I alone in this? We know how crazy this can sound to others. I remember a friend doing her best not to raise an eyebrow when three of us were talking about the Mandela Effect at lunch one day. Then I mentioned that the second most popular theme in my email only part of the discussion is at this website is the death of Billy Graham.

Thank heavens the other person with us had a smartphone. We had to go to Wikipedia and a couple of other sites to prove that, yes, Billy Graham is still alive. Maybe we slide in our sleep, just for the duration of that night; some of Dr. We each have our own, clear memories. So, if and when you encounter one of these alternate memories… well, you know where to find us. Or, say, the falling of the Berlin Wall? The collapse of the Soviet Union? Do you get snippets of memories and a lot of mixed up emotions or do you remember every program and newspaper article you saw and read about it?

If so, could you put the memories about the even on a timeline? Could he guess? He selected one of the real memories. When told that the memory of being lost was the false one, he had trouble believing it. Do this yourself, as well. At the end of the week, send them to a non involved party and have the memories posted on the site. See how much matches. See how much contradictions you can find with what they said before and what after.


The thing is, I believe in alternate realities. I think it would be amazing to be able to observe them, but realistically I know it would take a lot of energy. And be immensely complicated and not something that could happen by chance have you heard of any time travelers? And I repeat: no one lied, at least not intentionally. I urge you to read the last two links I posted before maybe using Cracked as a credible source was my mistake, but they do link to useful sites and articles, so read those instead. Find a psychologist and ask them how false memories work, if you must.

I just urge you to find out as many alternate explanations as possible before you go with the sliding into alternate realities thing. Alternate realities is not a simple explanation, sorry. I just chalked it up to not knowing history. When the Malaysian flight went missing and they were showing maps all I could think was wow Australia is a WHOLE lot closer to Asia than I ever thought, once again chalked that up to being terrible at geography. My biggest one, the only that I am certain of is the Berenstein Bears.

Or catching and episode of a show that I NEVER watch, and the next time I happen to watch the show months or years later it happens to be the exact same episode. Could just be coincidence. For some reason I brought up and old boyfriend of hers. I vividly remember Madonna having a baby boy with Sean Penn, and the tuxedo the baby wore at an awards ceremony for Madonna- I have always been a huge fan of Madonna and was shocked to learn she never did have a baby with Sean Penn, but I KNOW it happened!

I have a personal incident recently — last year I suspect it was around October I remember vividly a discussion in my kitchen with my partner about removing a piece of wood that had been annoying him. So I was bemused the other day when I walked back into the Kitchen and noticed that the piece of wood was still there. I did a double take — I remember the conversation about removing it, I remember it being removed.

I asked my partner and he remembers none of it…. I do have recollections of events and disagreeing with others about the details but eventually dismissing the issue as faulty memory. This is very cool. A friend and I have discussed many times the Mandela death. We both remember the same thing in detail. I think this an insight into a very important event. It could be a mis-quote from the media which has been suggested before but no one has owned up to it.

No retractions -nothing. I should probably look into it more and try and find newspaper clippings, see if anyone has grand final medals etc…. A certain number of unsupported memories can be attributed to confusion and forgetfulness. However, I maintain that most people can look back on them and then recall that enough other things were going on, confusion was possible.

Those confused and forgetful incidents are very different in quality from memories covered for a series of days, reinforced by extensive TV coverage, etc. Frankly, I think this is going on far more often than we realize, but — over time — we begin to attribute it to forgetfulness. In forums like this, we can find others who share the same or similar memories, and that can be a relief.

The smaller events — like your grand final memory — is more difficult to confirm. The door opens when we have support from others with shared memories of an alternate history. I do wonder if it runs deeper and is creepier than that, for example, we lost, and the other team was in the local newspaper because they were the victors. RE-mandella in prison. I remember the persons home I was in when the news first came on the TV.

That is to say, i was around 12ish, and we were visiting family friends, we were just playing and being kids, and then we were asked to quiet down and the adults turned up the TV to watch the news. It really knocked me over when I heard he was released from prison… due obviously to the fact that not only did I remember him dying in prison, but I also had all this other memory pertaining to the event where the news was broken to the world.

I do not understand how my mind could have fabricated such a thing.. I thought it was … but now that you mention it, I remember that was the same year Fred left for college, so you have to be right. Though it might be, in many cases… well, the percentages… not so likely. I also watch for identical phrasing. It was only a few months ago that I realized Patrick Swayze was dead.

I swear I remember him recovering from the illness that killed him. On the subject of near-death experiences: when I was born, I had one large kidney and one normal-sized one, and I had two ureters on the larger kidney and one on the normal one. Normal people have one on each kidney. I had lots of hospitalizations up until the age of seven. In one, I clearly remember lying on an operating table and looking up to see doctors and nurses crowded around me.

I believed, vehemently, that I had gotten surgery until I was ten and my mother explained to me that I had never had surgery. In the other, I was given a teddy bear. I still have him. In my memory, I was given some sort of full body scan and then taken into another room with my mother and the doctor. I picked the one I still have today. But according to my dad, I was given a catheter and it shook me so badly that, to calm me down, a nurse held up two teddy bears and I chose the one I have today.

I forgot to mention that I also have constant, frequent dreams that have small things mentioned in passing that are part of the next day. That second one is sort of recurring — every time my grandfather was hospitalized, I dreamed about it the night before. Every time my father went to jail, I dreamed about it, and every time my sister went to rehab or jail, I dreamed about it.

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I even had a serious anxiety attack the day she tried to kill herself — the times matched up exactly with my attack and her being made to drink charcoal, which apparently gave her a severe anxiety attack, too. I am or rather was until now! I was only talking about him the other day in passing to my partner and we both agreed that he was a bit of a looney! There was a white sheet over his coffin with a gold eagle on it or certainly some gold symbol as it was carried by the bearers.

Thanks, Chris! I do remember that part. One of the biggest challenges and surprises in this field is that most people want to explain things to themselves, logically, and it can take a bit of work to get they to trust their memories. Awsome website.

I had a friend a few years back who remembers my version of events exactly as i do. Secondly,and most importantly is the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle. I was in my final year of junior school and there was a TV set that was swithed on in the dinner hall to show pupils what had happened.

I know every detail of that room,the position of the TV and various people including a girl that i fancied who spoke to me for the first time ever that day. That day however was in and NOT as other websites would have me believe. There is no way in hell it happened in my later school in because certain people,including that girl never went there. We also never had that dinner hall with the TV set which was used at other times to show us educational schools programs. Interesting site! Tried to research this online a few years ago — only found 1 decent reference at the time..

I find that connection intriguing. I wish I had space to save some — While the wiki site is good for info, the content can be provided by anyone as I understand it… Just tossing this 1 in as an oddity, could perhaps be related to timelines or just the genes — I just caught part of the new-ish sitcom Betty White is in.. Just me? I remember Alec Guinness passing, and for me the Challenger explosion was in either or , because I saw it on TV when I was living in a dorm I only lived in from to A concept posited by Thomas Campbell as part of his reality theory.

Which states that no actual paranormal event can be truly recorded to an extent that causes a paradigm shift in modern science or indeed the world at large. Reality and the fact it is constrained is why we are here.. If mistakes and intent could be rectified by just changing stuff… there is no learning or growth factor.

The only way that reality could change is if it were for the good of the whole.. So in theory… this could be possible. I imagine the death of Mandela could have caused many possibilities that may have been bad not have fixed apartheid in SA or it may have fixed it by causing a martyr out of him… fixing it for the wrong resaons… who knows.

Regardless… this may have been a change that was made. Maybe this goes on all the time.. Maybe sometimes in tiny increments and maybe big ones… like Mandela. That happened more than once and I doubt my mom, a teacher, would mistake Russia for the Soviet Union when she lived in the Cold War. My college professor said she studied the mixed races names and told us we were too young to have studied it, but I had. What bugs me the most, though, is that my mother says she waited about a decade for me to be conceived and born.

That would make one of me to have been born back in , where those studies could have been possible. What if…? From a Dec. Creators Writers. The hand-written books allowed Brown and other employees to accomplish two ends, according to Brown and other people familiar with the operation. They could accurately track the work so they could eventually complete it, but do so without triggering the clock that started ticking once a work order was entered in the official electronic system.

Facilities manager Tim Heath instructed her to enter work orders in this fashion, according to Brown and Whittington. Heath did not return calls and text messages seeking comment. The requests were often logged into the official system by Brown the day they were completed, not the day they were called in. By doing so, the workers ensured that Balfour Beatty was appearing to meet the response-time goals set in its Air Force contract: 30 minutes to begin an emergency request, four hours for an urgent one and 24 hours for a routine matter.

The ruse also allowed the company to meet job completion goals: 24 hours for an emergency and two business days for both urgent and routine items. An example from shows how the set-up worked. If the request had been accurately logged, it would have failed the incentive requirements. Balfour Beatty later addressed the accusation in an application for an incentive fee payment.

About two weeks earlier, Balfour Beatty had fired Brown. As she was escorted out of the office, according to people who witnessed the scene, she shouted to co-workers that she had been axed for keeping a fake set of books at the direction of her boss, Heath. She filed a wrongful termination suit against the company that is still pending. In its statement, Balfour Beatty did not name Brown, but said a single employee acted inappropriately.

Internal Balfour Beatty documents show the company issued broad instructions to employees to alter the books. That was the message in a directive about work orders emailed to Balfour Beatty employees. All the while, Whittington said, corporate staff from Phoenix pushed him to close out maintenance requests so the company could obtain incentive fees.

Whittington said he was directed by his regional manager, Rebecka Bailey, and vice president Raul Martinez. Bailey is no longer with the company; both she and Martinez declined to comment. All those years, families lived with a range of hazards — raw sewage backups, vermin infestations and exposure to asbestos. In the McNarney Manor neighborhood of Tinker, all but a handful of the homes have flooring material containing asbestos, Whittington and two other former employees said.

Balfour Beatty covered that material with floating floors or carpeting for aesthetic purposes and to seal away the asbestos tiling, a common and effective abatement strategy. Much of the new flooring was cheap and poorly installed, however, according to Balfour Beatty work order records. The company should have hired a specialist to safely remove the asbestos or seal it off properly, said Nick Ippolito, who worked for 12 years as a residential construction supervisor before joining the Navy.

In , the couple left the Navy. Balfour Beatty declined to discuss the cases of specific families. It said it was not aware of widespread flooring problems in the McNarney homes. After Tina Brown was fired in mid, Whittington said, company executives directed Balfour Beatty employees at Tinker to stop keeping a second set of hand-written maintenance logs. The number of late work orders skyrocketed, from eight during the first half of to during the second half, according to a Reuters analysis of Tinker work order data.

Air Force housing officials at Tinker expressed disbelief. Inspectors have found water and mold damage. They were right to be suspicious, said Whittington. Examples include having to order special parts, jobs requiring multiple stages of labor, or residents requesting a repair slot after the mandated response deadline. Whittington said he combed through late maintenance requests and edited the records to include exceptions to the response time policy. The next spring, April 17, , eight residents called in maintenance requests and, the official records say, all eight requested the work be done later than required, on April 20, according to an email exchange with the Tinker housing office.

Who he was we do not know; for as to Epaphroditus, the freedman of Nero, and afterwards Domitian's secretary, who was put to death by Domitian in the 14th or 15th year of his reign, he could not be alive in the third of Trajan. Havercamp, p. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. But when the earth did not come into sight, but was covered with thick darkness, and a wind moved upon its surface, God commanded that there should be light: and when that was made, he considered the whole mass, and separated the light and the darkness; and the name he gave to one was Night, and the other he called Day: and he named the beginning of light, and the time of rest, The Evening and The Morning, and this was indeed the first day.

But Moses said it was one day; the cause of which I am able to give even now; but because I have promised to give such reasons for all things in a treatise by itself, I shall put off its exposition till that time. After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews.

On the third day he appointed the dry land to appear, with the sea itself round about it; and on the very same day he made the plants and the seeds to spring out of the earth. On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the other stars, and appointed them their motions and courses, that the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly signified.

And on the fifth day he produced the living creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; the former in the sea, the latter in the air: he also sorted them as to society and mixture, for procreation, and that their kinds might increase and multiply.

On the sixth day he created the four-footed beasts, and made them male and female: on the same day he also formed man. Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made. And that the seventh day was a rest, and a release from the labor of such operations; whence it is that we Celebrate a rest from our labors on that day, and call it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Hebrew tongue. Moreover, Moses, after the seventh day was over 1 begins to talk philosophically; and concerning the formation of man, says thus: That God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul.

God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; whereupon Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and acknowledged that she was made out of himself.

Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve, which signifies the mother of all living. Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; and that when he brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he commanded them to take care of the plants. Now the garden was watered by one river, 3 which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts. And Phison, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges.

Euphrates also, as well as Tigris, goes down into the Red Sea. God therefore commanded that Adam and his wife should eat of all the rest of the plants, but to abstain from the tree of knowledge; and foretold to them, that if they touched it, it would prove their destruction. But while all the living creatures had one language, 5 at that time the serpent, which then lived together with Adam and his wife, shewed an envious disposition, at his supposal of their living happily, and in obedience to the commands of God; and imagining, that when they disobeyed them, they would fall into calamities, he persuaded the woman, out of a malicious intention, to taste of the tree of knowledge, telling them, that in that tree was the knowledge of good and evil; which knowledge, when they should obtain, they would lead a happy life; nay, a life not inferior to that of a god: by which means he overcame the woman, and persuaded her to despise the command of God.

Now when she had tasted of that tree, and was pleased with its fruit, she persuaded Adam to make use of it also. Upon this they perceived that they were become naked to one another; and being ashamed thus to appear abroad, they invented somewhat to cover them; for the tree sharpened their understanding; and they covered themselves with fig-leaves; and tying these before them, out of modesty, they thought they were happier than they were before, as they had discovered what they were in want of.

But when God came into the garden, Adam, who was wont before to come and converse with him, being conscious of his wicked behavior, went out of the way. This behavior surprised God; and he asked what was the cause of this his procedure; and why he, that before delighted in that conversation, did now fly from it, and avoid it. When he made no reply, as conscious to himself that he had transgressed the command of God, God said, "I had before determined about you both, how you might lead a happy life, without any affliction, and care, and vexation of soul; and that all things which might contribute to your enjoyment and pleasure should grow up by my providence, of their own accord, without your own labor and pains-taking; which state of labor and pains-taking would soon bring on old age, and death would not be at any remote distance: but now thou hast abused this my good-will, and hast disobeyed my commands; for thy silence is not the sign of thy virtue, but of thy evil conscience.

But God allotted him punishment, because he weakly submitted to the counsel of his wife; and said the ground should not henceforth yield its fruits of its own accord, but that when it should be harassed by their labor, it should bring forth some of its fruits, and refuse to bring forth others. He also made Eve liable to the inconveniency of breeding, and the sharp pains of bringing forth children; and this because she persuaded Adam with the same arguments wherewith the serpent had persuaded her, and had thereby brought him into a calamitous condition.

He also deprived the serpent of speech, out of indignation at his malicious disposition towards Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison under his tongue, and made him an enemy to men; and suggested to them, that they should direct their strokes against his head, that being the place wherein lay his mischievous designs towards men, and it being easiest to take vengeance on him, that way.

And when he had deprived him of the use of his feet, he made him to go rolling all along, and dragging himself upon the ground. And when God had appointed these penalties for them, he removed Adam and Eve out of the garden into another place. Adam and Eve had two sons: the elder of them was named Cain; which name, when it is interpreted, signifies a possession: the younger was Abel, which signifies sorrow.

They had also daughters. Now the two brethren were pleased with different courses of life: for Abel, the younger, was a lover of righteousness; and believing that God was present at all his actions, he excelled in virtue; and his employment was that of a shepherd. But Cain was not only very wicked in other respects, but was wholly intent upon getting; and he first contrived to plough the ground.

He slew his brother on the occasion following:—They had resolved to sacrifice to God. Now Cain brought the fruits of the earth, and of his husbandry; but Abel brought milk, and the first-fruits of his flocks: but God was more delighted with the latter oblation, 6 when he was honored with what grew naturally of its own accord, than he was with what was the invention of a covetous man, and gotten by forcing the ground; whence it was that Cain was very angry that Abel was preferred by God before him; and he slew his brother, and hid his dead body, thinking to escape discovery.

But God, knowing what had been done, came to Cain, and asked him what was become of his brother, because he had not seen him of many days; whereas he used to observe them conversing together at other times. But Cain was in doubt with himself, and knew not what answer to give to God. At first he said that he was himself at a loss about his brother's disappearing; but when he was provoked by God, who pressed him vehemently, as resolving to know what the matter was, he replied, he was not his brother's guardian or keeper, nor was he an observer of what he did.

But, in return, God convicted Cain, as having been the murderer of his brother; and said, "I wonder at thee, that thou knowest not what is become of a man whom thou thyself hast destroyed. He also cast him, together with his wife, out of that land. And when he was afraid that in wandering about he should fall among Wild beasts, and by that means perish, God bid him not to entertain such a melancholy suspicion, and to go over all the earth without fear of what mischief he might suffer from wild beasts; and setting a mark upon him, that he might be known, he commanded him to depart.

And when Cain had traveled over many countries, he, with his wife, built a city, named Nod, which is a place so called, and there he settled his abode; where also he had children. However, he did not accept of his punishment in order to amendment, but to increase his wickedness; for he only aimed to procure every thing that was for his own bodily pleasure, though it obliged him to be injurious to his neighbors. He augmented his household substance with much wealth, by rapine and violence; he excited his acquaintance to procure pleasures and spoils by robbery, and became a great leader of men into wicked courses.

He also introduced a change in that way of simplicity wherein men lived before; and was the author of measures and weights. And whereas they lived innocently and generously while they knew nothing of such arts, he changed the world into cunning craftiness. He first of all set boundaries about lands: he built a city, and fortified it with walls, and he compelled his family to come together to it; and called that city Enoch, after the name of his eldest son Enoch.

Now Jared was the son of Enoch; whose son was Malaliel; whose son was Mathusela; whose son was Lamech; who had seventy-seven children by two wives, Silla and Ada. Of those children by Ada, one was Jabal: he erected tents, and loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same mother with him, exercised himself in music; 7 and invented the psaltery and the harp. But Tubal, one of his children by the other wife, exceeded all men in strength, and was very expert and famous in martial performances.

He procured what tended to the pleasures of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of making brass. Lamech was also the father of a daughter, whose name was Naamah. And because he was so skillful in matters of divine revelation, that he knew he was to be punished for Cain's murder of his brother, he made that known to his wives. Nay, even while Adam was alive, it came to pass that the posterity of Cain became exceeding wicked, every one successively dying, one after another, more wicked than the former. They were intolerable in war, and vehement in robberies; and if any one were slow to murder people, yet was he bold in his profligate behavior, in acting unjustly, and doing injuries for gain.


Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, [for our discourse must now be about him,] after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died.

He had indeed many other children, 8 but Seth in particular. As for the rest, it would be tedious to name them; I will therefore only endeavor to give an account of those that proceeded from Seth. Now this Seth, when he was brought up, and came to those years in which he could discern what was good, became a virtuous man; and as he was himself of an excellent character, so did he leave children behind him who imitated his virtues. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them, till they died.

They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars, 10 the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them.

Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day. Now this posterity of Seth continued to esteem God as the Lord of the universe, and to have an entire regard to virtue, for seven generations; but in process of time they were perverted, and forsook the practices of their forefathers; and did neither pay those honors to God which were appointed them, nor had they any concern to do justice towards men. But for what degree of zeal they had formerly shown for virtue, they now showed by their actions a double degree of wickedness, whereby they made God to be their enemy.

For many angels 11 of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those they had married; so he departed out of that land.

Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, 12 he turned the dry land into sea; and thus were all these men destroyed: but Noah alone was saved; for God suggested to him the following contrivance and way of escape:—That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits 13 long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high.

Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens.

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Now this ark had firm walls, and a roof, and was braced with cross beams, so that it could not be any way drowned or overborne by the violence of the water. And thus was Noah, with his family, preserved. Now he was the tenth from Adam, as being the son of Lamech, whose father was Mathusela; he was the son of Enoch, the son of Jared; and Jared was the son of Malaleel, who, with many of his sisters, were the children of Cainan, the son of Enos.

Now Enos was the son of Seth, the son of Adam. This calamity happened in the six hundredth year of Noah's government, [age,] in the second month, 14 called by the Macedonians Dius, but by the Hebrews Marchesuan: for so did they order their year in Egypt. Now he says that this flood began on the twenty-seventh [seventeenth] day of the forementioned month; and this was two thousand six hundred and fifty-six [one thousand six hundred and fifty-six] years from Adam, the first man; and the time is written down in our sacred books, those who then lived having noted down,[15] with great accuracy, both the births and deaths of illustrious men.

For indeed Seth was born when Adam was in his two hundred and thirtieth year, who lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth begat Enos in his two hundred and fifth year; who, when he had lived nine hundred and twelve years, delivered the government to Cainan his son, whom he had in his hundred and ninetieth year. He lived nine hundred and five years. Cainan, when he had lived nine hundred and ten years, had his son Malaleel, who was born in his hundred and seventieth year.

Death to the Landlords

This Malaleel, having lived eight hundred and ninety-five years, died, leaving his son Jared, whom he begat when he was in his hundred and sixty-fifth year. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. Now Mathusela, the son of Enoch, who was born to him when he was one hundred and sixty-five years old, had Lamech for his son when he was one hundred and eighty-seven years of age; to whom he delivered the government, when he had retained it nine hundred and sixty-nine years.

Now Lamech, when he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven years, appointed Noah, his son, to be ruler of the people, who was born to Lamech when he was one hundred and eighty-two years old, and retained the government nine hundred and fifty years. These years collected together make up the sum before set down.

But let no one inquire into the deaths of these men; for they extended their lives along together with their children and grandchildren; but let him have regard to their births only. When God gave the signal, and it began to rain, the water poured down forty entire days, till it became fifteen cubits higher than the earth; which was the reason why there was no greater number preserved, since they had no place to fly to.

When the rain ceased, the water did but just begin to abate after one hundred and fifty days, [that is, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month,] it then ceasing to subside for a little while. After this, the ark rested on the top of a certain mountain in Armenia; which, when Noah understood, he opened it; and seeing a small piece of land about it, he continued quiet, and conceived some cheerful hopes of deliverance. But a few days afterward, when the water was decreased to a greater degree, he sent out a raven, as desirous to learn whether any other part of the earth were left dry by the water, and whether he might go out of the ark with safety; but the raven, finding all the land still overflowed, returned to Noah again.

And after seven days he sent out a dove, to know the state of the ground; which came back to him covered with mud, and bringing an olive branch: hereby Noah learned that the earth was become clear of the flood. So after he had staid seven more days, he sent the living creatures out of the ark; and both he and his family went out, when he also sacrificed to God, and feasted with his companions. However, the Armenians call this place, [GREEK] 16 The Place of Descent; for the ark being saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day.

Now all the writers of barbarian histories make mention of this flood, and of this ark; among whom is Berosus the Chaldean. For when he is describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on thus: "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cordyaeans; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they take away, and use chiefly as amulets for the averting of mischiefs.

Nay, Nicolaus of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, hath a particular relation about them; where he speaks thus: "There is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the Deluge were saved; and that one who was carried in an ark came on shore upon the top of it; and that the remains of the timber were a great while preserved.

This might be the man about whom Moses the legislator of the Jews wrote. But as for Noah, he was afraid, since God had determined to destroy mankind, lest he should drown the earth every year; so he offered burnt-offerings, and besought God that nature might hereafter go on in its former orderly course, and that he would not bring on so great a judgment any more, by which the whole race of creatures might be in danger of destruction: but that, having now punished the wicked, he would of his goodness spare the remainder, and such as he had hitherto judged fit to be delivered from so severe a calamity; for that otherwise these last must be more miserable than the first, and that they must be condemned to a worse condition than the others, unless they be suffered to escape entirely; that is, if they be reserved for another deluge; while they must be afflicted with the terror and sight of the first deluge, and must also be destroyed by a second.

He also entreated God to accept of his sacrifice, and to grant that the earth might never again undergo the like effects of 'his wrath; that men might be permitted to go on cheerfully in cultivating the same; to build cities, and live happily in them; and that they might not be deprived of any of those good things which they enjoyed before the Flood; but might attain to the like length of days, and old age, which the ancient people had arrived at before. When Noah had made these supplications, God, who loved the man for his righteousness, granted entire success to his prayers, and said, that it was not he who brought the destruction on a polluted world, but that they underwent that vengeance on account of their own wickedness; and that he had not brought men into the world if he had himself determined to destroy them, it being an instance of greater wisdom not to have granted them life at all, than, after it was granted, to procure their destruction; "But the injuries," said he, "they offered to my holiness and virtue, forced me to bring this punishment upon them.

But I will leave off for the time to come to require such punishments, the effects of so great wrath, for their future wicked actions, and especially on account of thy prayers. But if I shall at any time send tempests of rain, in an extraordinary manner, be not affrighted at the largeness of the showers; for the water shall no more overspread the earth.

However, I require you to abstain from shedding the blood of men, and to keep yourselves pure from murder; and to punish those that commit any such thing. I permit you to make use of all the other living creatures at your pleasure, and as your appetites lead you; for I have made you lords of them all, both of those that walk on the land, and those that swim in the waters, and of those that fly in the regions of the air on high, excepting their blood, for therein is the life.

But I will give you a sign that I have left off my anger by my bow. And when God had said and promised thus, he went away. Now when Noah had lived three hundred and fifty years after the Flood, and that all that time happily, he died, having lived the number of nine hundred and fifty years. But let no one, upon comparing the lives of the ancients with our lives, and with the few years which we now live, think that what we have said of them is false; or make the shortness of our lives at present an argument, that neither did they attain to so long a duration of life, for those ancients were beloved of God, and [lately] made by God himself; and because their food was then fitter for the prolongation of life, might well live so great a number of years: and besides, God afforded them a longer time of life on account of their virtue, and the good use they made of it in astronomical and geometrical discoveries, which would not have afforded the time of foretelling [the periods of the stars] unless they had lived six hundred years; for the great year is completed in that interval.

Now I have for witnesses to what I have said, all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians; for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian History, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean Monuments, and Mochus, and Hestieus, and, besides these, Hieronymus the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician History, agree to what I here say: Hesiod also, and Hecatseus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus; and, besides these, Ephorus and Nicolaus relate that the ancients lived a thousand years.

But as to these matters, let every one look upon them as he thinks fit. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner.

But they were so ill instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible, by experience, of what sin they had been guilty: for when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies; but they, imagining the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favor of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him.

Nay, they added to this their disobedience to the Divine will, the suspicion that they were therefore ordered to send out separate colonies, that, being divided asunder, they might the more easily be Oppressed. Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness.

He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was.

It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them divers languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another.

The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion. The Sibyl also makes mention of this tower, and of the confusion of the language, when she says thus: "When all men were of one language, some of them built a high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon.

After this they were dispersed abroad, on account of their languages, and went out by colonies every where; and each colony took possession of that land which they light upon, and unto which God led them; so that the whole continent was filled with them, both the inland and the maritime countries. There were some also who passed over the sea in ships, and inhabited the islands: and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants.

And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well [in Greek] that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves.

Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians.

Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants.